The national shame

Although around 275 million people in India gained access to improved sanitation between 1990 and 2011, 615 million still defecated in the open in 2011 (WHO and UNICEF 2013). India’s proportion of Open Defecation in the world has risen from 55% in 2006 to 58% in 2008 and around 61% in 2011 (WHO and UNICEF 2013). The distribution of OD by wealth quintile is also sharply skewed: the wealthiest 40% of Indians are 10 times more likely than the poorest 40% to use improved sanitation (Narayanan et al 2011). Strong causal links can be postulated between India’s high rates of OD, stunted children and poverty

via Robert Chambers and Gregor Von Medeaza, in EPW

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